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|74||Calcium influx determines the muscular response to electrotransfer.|
Hojman P; Brolin C; Gissel H
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2012; 302(4): R446-53
PubMed ID: 22160546
Cell membrane permeabilization by electric pulses (electropermeabilization), results in free exchange of ions across the cell membrane. The role of electrotransfer-mediated Ca(2+)-influx on muscle signaling pathways involved in degeneration (beta-actin and MurF), inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-alpha), and regeneration (MyoD1, myogenin, and Myf5) was investigated, using pulse parameters of both electrochemotherapy (8 HV) and DNA delivery (HVLV). Three pulsing conditions were used: 8 high-voltage pulses (8 HV), resulting in large permeabilization and ion flux, and a combination of one high-voltage pulse and one low-voltage pulse (HVLV), either alone or in combination with injection of DNA. Mice and rats were anesthetized before pulsing. At the times given, animals were killed, and intact tibialis cranialis muscles were excised for analysis. Uptake of Ca(2+) was assessed using (45)Ca as a tracer. Using gene expression analyses and histology, we showed a clear association between Ca(2+) influx and muscular response. Moderate Ca(2+) influx induced by HVLV pulses results in activation of pathways involved in immediate repair and hypertrophy. This response could be attenuated by intramuscular injection of EGTA reducing Ca(2+) influx. Larger Ca(2+) influx as induced by 8-HV pulses leads to muscle damage and muscle fiber regeneration through recruitment of satellite cells. The extent of Ca(2+) influx determines the muscular response to electrotransfer and, thus, the success of a given application. In the case of electrochemotherapy, in which the objective is cell death, a large influx of Ca(2+) may be beneficial, whereas for DNA electrotransfer, muscle recovery should occur without myofiber loss to ensure preservation of plasmid DNA.