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103Effect of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity in response to endurance exercise training.
Yfanti C; Nielsen AR; Akerstrom T; Nielsen S; Rose AJ; Richter EA; Lykkesfeldt J; Fischer CP; Pedersen BK
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2011; 300(5): E761-70
PubMed ID: 21325105

While production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is associated with some of the beneficial adaptations to regular physical exercise, it is not established whether RONS play a role in the improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle obtained by endurance training. To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation during endurance training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, 21 young healthy (age 29 +/- 1 y, BMI 25 +/- 3 kg/m(2)) men were randomly assigned to either an antioxidant [AO; 500 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) daily] or a placebo (PL) group that both underwent a supervised intense endurance-training program 5 times/wk for 12 wk. A 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, a maximal oxygen consumption (Vo(2max)) and maximal power output (P(max)) test, and body composition measurements (fat mass, fat-free mass) were performed before and after the training. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of the concentration and activity of proteins regulating glucose metabolism. Although plasma levels of vitamin C (P < 0.05) and alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.05) increased markedly in the AO group, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased similarly in both the AO (17.2%, P < 0.05) and the PL (18.9%, P < 0.05) group in response to training. Vo(2max) and P(max) also increased similarly in both groups (time effect, P < 0.0001 for both) as well as protein content of GLUT4, hexokinase II, and total Akt (time effect, P

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